NIS 2 Directive, Preamble 41-50.
(41) Member States should be adequately equipped, in terms of both technical and organisational capabilities, to prevent, detect, respond to and mitigate incidents and risks. Member States should therefore establish or designate one or more CSIRTs under this Directive and ensure that they have adequate resources and technical capabilities. The CSIRTs should comply with the requirements laid down in this Directive in order to guarantee effective and compatible capabilities to deal with incidents and risks and to ensure efficient cooperation at Union level.
Member States should be able to designate existing computer emergency response teams (CERTs) as CSIRTs. In order to enhance the trust relationship between the entities and the CSIRTs, where a CSIRT is part of a competent authority, Member States should be able to consider functional separation between the operational tasks provided by the CSIRTs, in particular in relation to information sharing and assistance provided to the entities, and the supervisory activities of the competent authorities.
(42) The CSIRTs are tasked with incident handling. This includes the processing of large volumes of sometimes sensitive data. Member States should ensure that the CSIRTs have an infrastructure for information sharing and processing, as well as well-equipped staff, which ensures the confidentiality and trustworthiness of their operations. The CSIRTs could also adopt codes of conduct in that respect.
(43) As regards personal data, the CSIRTs should be able to provide, in accordance with Regulation (EU) 2016/679, upon the request of an essential or important entity, a proactive scanning of the network and information systems used for the provision of the entity’s services. Where applicable, Member States should aim to ensure an equal level of technical capabilities for all sectoral CSIRTs. Member States should be able to request the assistance of ENISA in developing their CSIRTs.
(44) The CSIRTs should have the ability, upon an essential or important entity’s request, to monitor the entity’s internet-facing assets, both on and off premises, in order to identify, understand and manage the entity’s overall organisational risks as regards newly identified supply chain compromises or critical vulnerabilities. The entity should be encouraged to communicate to the CSIRT whether it runs a privileged management interface, as this could affect the speed of undertaking mitigating actions.
(45) Given the importance of international cooperation on cybersecurity, the CSIRTs should be able to participate in international cooperation networks in addition to the CSIRTs network established by this Directive. Therefore, for the purpose of carrying out their tasks, the CSIRTs and the competent authorities should be able to exchange information, including personal data, with the national computer security incident response teams or competent authorities of third countries provided that the conditions under Union data protection law for transfers of personal data to third countries, inter alia those of Article 49 of Regulation (EU) 2016/679, are met.
(46) Ensuring adequate resources to meet the objectives of this Directive and to enable the competent authorities and the CSIRTs to carry out the tasks laid down herein is essential. The Member States can introduce at the national level a financing mechanism to cover necessary expenditure in relation to the conduct of tasks of public entities responsible for cybersecurity in the Member State pursuant to this Directive. Such mechanism should comply with Union law and should be proportionate and non-discriminatory and should take into account different approaches to providing secure services.
(47) The CSIRTs network should continue to contribute to strengthening confidence and trust and to promote swift and effective operational cooperation among Member States. In order to enhance operational cooperation at Union level, the CSIRTs network should consider inviting Union bodies and agencies involved in cybersecurity policy, such as Europol, to participate in its work.
(48) For the purpose of achieving and maintaining a high level of cybersecurity, the national cybersecurity strategies required under this Directive should consist of coherent frameworks providing strategic objectives and priorities in the area of cybersecurity and the governance to achieve them. Those strategies can be composed of one or more legislative or non-legislative instruments.
(49) Cyber hygiene policies provide the foundations for protecting network and information system infrastructures, hardware, software and online application security, and business or end-user data upon which entities rely. Cyber hygiene policies comprising a common baseline set of practices, including software and hardware updates, password changes, the management of new installs, the limitation of administrator-level access accounts, and the backing-up of data, enable a proactive framework of preparedness and overall safety and security in the event of incidents or cyber threats. ENISA should monitor and analyse Member States’ cyber hygiene policies.
(50) Cybersecurity awareness and cyber hygiene are essential to enhance the level of cybersecurity within the Union, in particular in light of the growing number of connected devices that are increasingly used in cyberattacks. Efforts should be made to enhance the overall awareness of risks related to such devices, while assessments at Union level could help ensure a common understanding of such risks within the internal market.
Note: This is the final text of the NIS 2 Directive. The full name is "Directive (EU) 2022/2555 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 14 December 2022 on measures for a high common level of cybersecurity across the Union, amending Regulation (EU) No 910/2014 and Directive (EU) 2018/1972, and repealing Directive (EU) 2016/1148 (NIS 2 Directive)".
Articles, Directive (EU) 2022/2555 (NIS 2 Directive):