NIS 2 Directive, Preamble 61-70.
(61) Member States should designate one of its CSIRTs as a coordinator, acting as a trusted intermediary between the reporting natural or legal persons and the manufacturers or providers of ICT products or ICT services, which are likely to be affected by the vulnerability, where necessary.
The tasks of the CSIRT designated as coordinator should include identifying and contacting the entities concerned, assisting the natural or legal persons reporting a vulnerability, negotiating disclosure timelines and managing vulnerabilities that affect multiple entities (multi-party coordinated vulnerability disclosure). Where the reported vulnerability could have significant impact on entities in more than one Member State, the CSIRTs designated as coordinators should cooperate within the CSIRTs network, where appropriate.
(62) Access to correct and timely information about vulnerabilities affecting ICT products and ICT services contributes to an enhanced cybersecurity risk management. Sources of publicly available information about vulnerabilities are an important tool for the entities and for the users of their services, but also for the competent authorities and the CSIRTs. For that reason, ENISA should establish a European vulnerability database where entities, regardless of whether they fall within the scope of this Directive, and their suppliers of network and information systems, as well as the competent authorities and the CSIRTs, can disclose and register, on a voluntary basis, publicly known vulnerabilities for the purpose of allowing users to take appropriate mitigating measures.
The aim of that database is to address the unique challenges posed by risks to Union entities. Furthermore, ENISA should establish an appropriate procedure regarding the publication process in order to give entities the time to take mitigating measures as regards their vulnerabilities and employ state-of-the-art cybersecurity risk-management measures as well as machine-readable datasets and corresponding interfaces. To encourage a culture of disclosure of vulnerabilities, disclosure should have no detrimental effects on the reporting natural or legal person.
(63) Although similar vulnerability registries or databases exist, they are hosted and maintained by entities which are not established in the Union. A European vulnerability database maintained by ENISA would provide improved transparency regarding the publication process before the vulnerability is publicly disclosed, and resilience in the event of a disruption or an interruption of the provision of similar services.
In order, to the extent possible, to avoid a duplication of efforts and to seek complementarity, ENISA should explore the possibility of entering into structured cooperation agreements with similar registries or databases that fall under third-country jurisdiction. In particular, ENISA should explore the possibility of close cooperation with the operators of the Common Vulnerabilities and Exposures (CVE) system.
(64) The Cooperation Group should support and facilitate strategic cooperation and the exchange of information, as well as strengthen trust and confidence among Member States. The Cooperation Group should establish a work programme every two years. The work programme should include the actions to be undertaken by the Cooperation Group to implement its objectives and tasks. The timeframe for the establishment of the first work programme under this Directive should be aligned with the timeframe of the last work programme established under Directive (EU) 2016/1148 in order to avoid potential disruptions in the work of the Cooperation Group.
(65) When developing guidance documents, the Cooperation Group should consistently map national solutions and experiences, assess the impact of Cooperation Group deliverables on national approaches, discuss implementation challenges and formulate specific recommendations, in particular as regards facilitating an alignment of the transposition of this Directive among Member States, to be addressed through a better implementation of existing rules. The Cooperation Group could also map the national solutions in order to promote compatibility of cybersecurity solutions applied to each specific sector across the Union. This is particularly relevant to sectors that have an international or cross-border nature.
(66) The Cooperation Group should remain a flexible forum and be able to react to changing and new policy priorities and challenges while taking into account the availability of resources. It could organise regular joint meetings with relevant private stakeholders from across the Union to discuss activities carried out by the Cooperation Group and gather data and input on emerging policy challenges. Additionally, the Cooperation Group should carry out a regular assessment of the state of play of cyber threats or incidents, such as ransomware.
In order to enhance cooperation at Union level, the Cooperation Group should consider inviting relevant Union institutions, bodies, offices and agencies involved in cybersecurity policy, such as the European Parliament, Europol, the European Data Protection Board, the European Union Aviation Safety Agency, established by Regulation (EU) 2018/1139, and the European Union Agency for Space Programme, established by Regulation (EU) 2021/696 of the European Parliament and the Council (14), to participate in its work.
(67) The competent authorities and the CSIRTs should be able to participate in exchange schemes for officials from other Member States, within a specific framework and, where applicable, subject to the required security clearance of officials participating in such exchange schemes, in order to improve cooperation and strengthen trust among Member States. The competent authorities should take the necessary measures to enable officials from other Member States to play an effective role in the activities of the host competent authority or the host CSIRT.
(68) Member States should contribute to the establishment of the EU Cybersecurity Crisis Response Framework as set out in Commission Recommendation (EU) 2017/1584 (15) through the existing cooperation networks, in particular the European cyber crisis liaison organisation network (EU-CyCLONe), the CSIRTs network and the Cooperation Group. EU-CyCLONe and the CSIRTs network should cooperate on the basis of procedural arrangements that specify the details of that cooperation and avoid any duplication of tasks.
EU-CyCLONe’s rules of procedure should further specify the arrangements through which that network should function, including the network’s roles, means of cooperation, interactions with other relevant actors and templates for information sharing, as well as means of communication. For crisis management at Union level, relevant parties should rely on the EU Integrated Political Crisis Response arrangements under Council Implementing Decision (EU) 2018/1993 (16) (IPCR arrangements). The Commission should use the ARGUS high-level cross-sectoral crisis coordination process for that purpose. If the crisis entails an important external or Common Security and Defence Policy dimension, the European External Action Service Crisis Response Mechanism should be activated.
(69) In accordance with the Annex to Recommendation (EU) 2017/1584, a large-scale cybersecurity incident should mean an incident which causes a level of disruption that exceeds a Member State’s capacity to respond to it or which has a significant impact on at least two Member States. Depending on their cause and impact, large-scale cybersecurity incidents may escalate and turn into fully-fledged crises not allowing the proper functioning of the internal market or posing serious public security and safety risks for entities or citizens in several Member States or the Union as a whole.
Given the wide-ranging scope and, in most cases, the cross-border nature of such incidents, Member States and the relevant Union institutions, bodies, offices and agencies should cooperate at technical, operational and political level to properly coordinate the response across the Union.
(70) Large-scale cybersecurity incidents and crises at Union level require coordinated action to ensure a rapid and effective response because of the high degree of interdependence between sectors and Member States. The availability of cyber-resilient network and information systems and the availability, confidentiality and integrity of data are vital for the security of the Union and for the protection of its citizens, businesses and institutions against incidents and cyber threats, as well as for enhancing the trust of individuals and organisations in the Union’s ability to promote and protect a global, open, free, stable and secure cyberspace grounded in human rights, fundamental freedoms, democracy and the rule of law.
Note: This is the final text of the NIS 2 Directive. The full name is "Directive (EU) 2022/2555 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 14 December 2022 on measures for a high common level of cybersecurity across the Union, amending Regulation (EU) No 910/2014 and Directive (EU) 2018/1972, and repealing Directive (EU) 2016/1148 (NIS 2 Directive)".
Articles, Directive (EU) 2022/2555 (NIS 2 Directive):